Caracterización química de las fracciones volátiles y aceites esenciales de hojas y flores de Chromolaena barranquillensis encontrada en Sabanalarga (Atlántico, Colombia).

Resumen / abstract: 

Los metabolitos secundarios volátiles obtenidos de hojas y flores (frescas y secas) de Chromolaena barranquillensis (especie nativa del departamento del Atlántico), aislados por destilación-extracción simultánea con solvente (SDE) e hidrodestilación convencional (HD), se caracterizaron químicamente por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los compuestos mayoritarios que se identificaron en las fracciones volátiles fueron: (a). flores frescas – -elemeno (24.4%), -pineno (19.6%) y limoneno (15.7%); (b). flores secas – trans- D (16.6%) y óxido de cariofileno (13.6%); (c). hojas frescas b mirceno (39.0%), -curcumeno (17.8%) y limoneno (10.2%); y, (d). hojas secas – trans- cariofileno (13.8%), -curcumeno (9.8%), -elemeno (7.7%) y óxido de cariofileno (6.4%). En los aceites esenciales (AE) se reconocieron como componentes -cariofileno (21.4%), germacreno - principales: (e). flores frescas – trans- elemeno (20.6%) y germacreno D (15.8%); (g). hojas frescas – trans- -cariofileno (22.9%), -elemeno (14.3%) y germacreno D (14.0%); (f). flores secas – trans- -cariofileno (22.0%), limoneno (11.8%), -cadineno (6.8%) y germacreno D (6.1%); y, -cariofileno (23.6%), - (h). hojas secas – trans- AE fueron 0.2%/0.4% y 0.06%/0.1% para las flores frescas/secas y hojas frescas/secas, respectivamente. -cariofileno (29.1%), germacreno D (13.1%) y óxido de cariofileno (12.0%). 

 

Chemical characterization of the volatile fractions and essential oils of leaves and flowers of Chromolaena barranquillensis from Sabanalarga (Atlántico, Colombia).

Volatile secondary metabolites obtained from the leaves and flowers (fresh and dried) of Chromolaena barranquillensis (native specie of the Departamento del Atlántico), and isolated by simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE) and conventional hydrodistillation (HD), were characterized chemically by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified in the volatile fractions were: (a). fresh flowers – -elemene (24.4%), -pinene (19.6%), and limonene (15.7%); (b). dried flowers – -caryophyllene (21.4%), germacrene D (16.6%), and caryophyllene oxide (13.6%); (c). fresh leaves – myrcene (39.0%), -curcumene (17.8%), and limonene (10.2%); and, (d). dried leaves – -caryophyllene (13.8%), -curcumene (9.8%), - elemene (7.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (6.4%). In the essential oils (EO) were recognized as major components: (e). fresh flowers – -caryophyllene (22.9%), -elemene (14.3%), and germacrene D (14.0%); (f). dried flowers – -caryophyllene (23.6%), -elemene (20.6%), and germacrene D (15.8%); (g). fresh leaves – -caryophyllene (22.0%), limonene (11.8%), -cadinene (6.8%), and germacrene D (6.1%); and, (h). dried leaves – -caryophyllene (29.1%), germacrene D (13.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (12.0%). The yields achieved in the isolation of EO were 0.2%/0.4% and 0.06%/0.1% for fresh/dried flowers and fresh/dried leaves, respectively.

Keywords: Chromolaena barranquillensis, hydrodistillation, SDE, GC-MS, essential oils, volatile fractions.