Actividad antibacteriana de extractos de frutos de nanchi (Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth), arrayán (Psidium sartorianum (O. Berg) Nied.) y ayale (Crescentia alata Kunth).

Resumen / abstract: 

Nanchi (Byrsonima crassifolia), arrayán (Psidium sartorianum) y ayale (Crescentia alata) son plantas silvestres subutilizadas de México; sus frutos son comestibles y usados como medicamentos tradicionales contra infecciones bacterianas humanas (e.g. disentería bacilar). Sin embargo, los reportes científicos que avalen los usos y promuevan su consumo son escasos. En este trabajo se determinó, ensayo de micro-dilución en caldo, la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) y Concentración Mínima Bactericida (CMB), de los extractos de frutos (hexánico, EH; clorofórmico, EC; y metanólico, EM) contra 21 bacterias patógenas humanas. Los EH de arrayán y ayale mostraron la mayor actividad (CMI 0.25-2 mg/mL; CMB 0.5-16 mg/mL) contra enterobacterias (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. y Shigella spp.). El EM de arrayán fue el más activo contra bacterias Gram positivas, presentando Staphylococcus aureus la mayor sensibilidad (CMI 2 mg/mL; CMB 2-4 mg/mL). Estos resultados apoyan el uso tradicional de estos materiales en padecimientos asociados al tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas.

 

Antibacterial activity of extracts obtained from the nanchi (Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth), arrayan (Psidium sartorianum (O. Berg) Nied.) and ayale (Crescentia alata Kunth) fruits.

Nanchi (Byrsonima crassifolia), arrayan (Psidium sartorianum) and ayale (Crescentia alata) are wild and under-utilized plants from Mexico; their fruits have been used as food and as Mexican traditional remedies against human bacterial infections (e.g. bacillary dysentery). However, scientific reports which support such uses or promote their consumption are scarce. In this work, the antibacterial activities of fruit extracts (i.e. hexanic, HE; chloroformic, CE; and methanolic, ME) were determined by the micro-dilution assay, establishing the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericide Concentration (MBC) against 21 human pathogenic bacteria. The HE of arrayan and ayale showed the highest activity against enterobacteria (E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.) (MIC 0.25-2 mg/mL; MBC 0.5-16 mg/mL). The arrayan ME was the most active against the Gram-positive bacteria, showing Staphylococcus aureus the highest sensitivity (MIC 2 mg/mL; MBC 2-4 mg/mL). The presented results support the traditional uses of these plant materials for treating bacterial infectious diseases.

Keywords: Psidium sartorianum, Crescentia alata, Byrsonima crassifolia, antibacterial activity, fruit, nutraceutics.